A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
Produced by David Widger and Janet Blenkinship
A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT
MARK TWAIN(Samuel L. Clemens)
The ungentle laws and customs touched upon in this tale arehistorical, and the episodes which are used to illustrate themare also historical. It is not pretended that these laws andcustoms existed in England in the sixth century; no, it is onlypretended that inasmuch as they existed in the English and othercivilizations of far later times, it is safe to consider that it isno libel upon the sixth century to suppose them to have been inpractice in that day also. One is quite justified in inferringthat whatever one of these laws or customs was lacking in thatremote time, its place was competently filled by a worse one.
The question as to whether there is such a thing as divine rightof kings is not settled in this book. It was found too difficult.That the executive head of a nation should be a person of loftycharacter and extraordinary ability, was manifest and indisputable;that none but the Deity could select that head unerringly, wasalso manifest and indisputable; that the Deity ought to make thatselection, then, was likewise manifest and indisputable; consequently,that He does make it, as claimed, was an unavoidable deduction.I mean, until the author of this book encountered the Pompadour,and Lady Castlemaine, and some other executive heads of that kind;these were found so difficult to work into the scheme, that itwas judged better to take the other tack in this book (whichmust be issued this fall), and then go into training and settlethe question in another book. It is, of course, a thing whichought to be settled, and I am not going to have anything particularto do next winter anyway.
HARTFORD, July 21, 1889
A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT
A WORD OF EXPLANATION
It was in Warwick Castle that I came across the curious strangerwhom I am going to talk about. He attracted me by three things:his candid simplicity, his marvelous familiarity with ancient armor,and the restfulness of his company--for he did all the talking.We fell together, as modest people will, in the tail of the herdthat was being shown through, and he at once began to say thingswhich interested me. As he talked along, softly, pleasantly,flowingly, he seemed to drift away imperceptibly out of this worldand time, and into some remote era and old forgotten country;and so he gradually wove such a spell about me that I seemedto move among the specters and shadows and dust and mold of a grayantiquity, holding speech with a relic of it! Exactly as I wouldspeak of my nearest personal friends or enemies, or my most familiarneighbors, he spoke of Sir Bedivere, Sir Bors de Ganis, Sir Launcelotof the Lake, Sir Galahad, and all the other great names of theTable Round--and how old, old, unspeakably old and faded and dryand musty and ancient he came to look as he went on! Presentlyhe turned to me and said, just as one might speak of the weather,or any other common matter--
"You know about transmigration of souls; do you know abouttransposition of epochs--and bodies?"
I said I had not heard of it. He was so little interested--justas when people speak of the weather--that he did not noticewhether I made him any answer or not. There was half a momentof silence, immediately interrupted by the droning voice of thesalaried cicerone:
"Ancient hauberk, date of the sixth century, time of King Arthurand the Round Table; said to have belonged to the knight Sir Sagramorle Desirous; observe the round hole through the chain-mail inthe left breast; can't be accounted for; supposed to have beendone with a bullet since invention of firearms--perhaps maliciouslyby Cromwell's soldiers."
My acquaintance smiled--not a modern smile, but one that musthave gone out of general use many, many centuries ago--and mutteredapparently to himself:
"Wit ye well, _I saw it done_." Then, after a pause, added:"I did it myself."
By the time I had recovered from the electric surprise of thisremark, he was gone.
All that evening I sat by my fire at the Warwick Arms, steepedin a dream of the olden time, while the rain beat upon the windows,and the wind roared about the eaves and corners. From time totime I dipped into old Sir Thomas Malory's enchanting book, andfed at its rich feast of prodigies and adventures, breathed inthe fragrance of its obsolete names, and dreamed again. Midnightbeing come at length, I read another tale, for a nightcap--thiswhich here follows, to wit:
HOW SIR LAUNCELOT SLEW TWO GIANTS, AND MADE A CASTLE FREE
Anon withal came there upon him two great giants, well armed, all save the heads, with two horrible clubs in their hands. Sir Launcelot put his shield afore him, and put the stroke away of the one giant, and with his sword he clave his head asunder. When his fellow saw that, he ran away as he were wood [*demented], for fear of the horrible strokes, and Sir Launcelot after him with all his might, and smote him on the shoulder, and clave him to the middle. Then Sir Launcelot went into the hall, and there came afore him three score ladies and damsels, and all kneeled unto him, and thanked God and him of their deliverance. For, sir, said they, the most part of us have been here this seven year their prisoners, and we have worked all manner of silk works for our meat, and we are all great gentle-women born, and blessed be the time, knight, that ever thou wert born; for thou hast done the most worship that ever did knight in the world, that will we bear record, and we all pray you to tell us your name, that we may tell our friends who delivered us out of prison. Fair damsels, he said, my name is Sir Launcelot du Lake. And so he departed from them and betaught them unto God. And then he mounted upon his horse, and rode into many strange and wild countries, and through many waters and valleys, and evil was he lodged. And at the last by fortune him happened against a night to come to a fair courtilage, and therein he found an old gentle-woman that lodged him with a good-will, and there he had good cheer for him and his horse. And when time was, his host brought him into a fair garret over the gate to his bed. There Sir Launcelot unarmed him, and set his harness by him, and went to bed, and anon he fell on sleep. So, soon after there came one on horseback, and knocked at the gate in great haste. And when Sir Launcelot heard this he rose up, and looked out at the window, and saw by the moonlight three knights come riding after that one man, and all three lashed on him at once with swords, and that one knight turned on them knightly again and defended him. Truly, said Sir Launcelot, yonder one knight shall I help, for it were shame for me to see three knights on one, and if he be slain I am partner of his death. And therewith he took his harness and went out at a window by a sheet down to the four knights, and then Sir Launcelot said on high, Turn you knights unto me, and leave your fighting with that knight. And then they all three left Sir Kay, and turned unto Sir Launcelot, and there began great battle, for they alight all three, and strake many strokes at Sir Launcelot, and assailed him on every side. Then Sir Kay dressed him for to have holpen Sir Launcelot. Nay, sir, said he, I will none of your help, therefore as ye will have my help let me alone with them. Sir Kay for the pleasure of the knight suffered him for to do his will, and so stood aside. And then anon within six strokes Sir Launcelot had stricken them to the earth.
And then they all three cried, Sir Knight, we yield us unto you as man of might matchless. As to that, said Sir Launcelot, I will not take your yielding unto me, but so that ye yield you unto Sir Kay the seneschal, on that covenant I will save your lives and else not. Fair knight, said they, that were we loath to do; for as for Sir Kay we chased him hither, and had overcome him had ye not been; therefore, to yield us unto him it were no reason. Well, as to that, said Sir Launcelot, ad
vise you well, for ye may choose whether ye will die or live, for an ye be yielden, it shall be unto Sir Kay. Fair knight, then they said, in saving our lives we will do as thou commandest us. Then shall ye, said Sir Launcelot, on Whitsunday next coming go unto the court of King Arthur, and there shall ye yield you unto Queen Guenever, and put you all three in her grace and mercy, and say that Sir Kay sent you thither to be her prisoners. On the morn Sir Launcelot arose early, and left Sir Kay sleeping; and Sir Launcelot took Sir Kay's armor and his shield and armed him, and so he went to the stable and took his horse, and took his leave of his host, and so he departed. Then soon after arose Sir Kay and missed Sir Launcelot; and then he espied that he had his armor and his horse. Now by my faith I know well that he will grieve some of the court of King Arthur; for on him knights will be bold, and deem that it is I, and that will beguile them; and because of his armor and shield I am sure I shall ride in peace. And then soon after departed Sir Kay, and thanked his host.
As I laid the book down there was a knock at the door, and mystranger came in. I gave him a pipe and a chair, and made himwelcome. I also comforted him with a hot Scotch whisky; gave himanother one; then still another--hoping always for his story.After a fourth persuader, he drifted into it himself, in a quitesimple and natural way: